Marxism & Indigenous Peoples

“All red races are born Socialists, and most tribes carry out their communistic ideas to the letter. Amongst the Iroquois it is considered disgraceful to have food if your neighbour has none. To be a creditable member of the nation you must divide your possessions with your less fortunate fellows.”
– Tekahionwake (E. Pauline Johnson), The Sea-Serpent (1911)

“But I also revived our old stories as a means to frame modern stories like myth-making. The first time I ever saw that done I was about ten or eleven and someone gave me a copy of ‘Tales of Vancouver’ by E. Pauline Johnson and Capilano who was a direct relative of mine was retelling the story of the sea serpent, but he was predicting what is happening now, the industrialization of Canada, and that was 1880. I thought, that’s what I want to do. I want to retell these stories as if they were happening now.”
– Lee Maracle (Stó:lō), interviewed by Tania Willard (Secwepemc), Redwire Magazine (April 2003)

Tecumseh’s speech to Governor Harrison at Vincennes, Indiana Territory (August 12, 1810)

Forms Which Precede Capitalist Production & The Chapter on Capital (continuation), by Karl Marx (1857-1858)

Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist, by Karl Marx (1867)

Distribution Relations and Production Relations, by Karl Marx (1883)

The Sea-Serpent – Tekahionwake (1911)

The Pitfalls of National Consciousness, by Frantz Fanon (1961)

Native Alliance for Red Power – Eight Point Program (1969)

Capitalism, the Final Stage of Exploitation – Lee Carter (1970)

The Need for a Revolutionary Struggle – Howard Adams (1972)

Maria Campbell’s Speech to the Native Peoples Caravan (1974)

Cultural Genocide, Intentionally Planned – Rose Bishop (1975)

The Form of the Struggle For Liberation – Howard Adams (1975)

The Red Path and Socialism – ᐊᓯᓂ Vern Harper (1979)

Marxism from a Native Perspective – John Mohawk (1981)

The Development of Capitalism and the Subjugation of Native Women in Northern Canada – Ron Bourgeault (1983)

The Indian, the Métis and the Fur Trade: Class, Sexism and Racism in the Transition from “Communism” to Capitalism, by Ron Bourgeault (1983) | PDF

Traditional Indian Government: Of the People, by the People, for the People – Marie Smallface-Marule (1984)

Marxism and Native Americans – Reviewed by Howard Adams (1984)

Karl Marx and the Iroquois, by Franklin Rosemont (1989)

No Surrender – Howard Adams on the Oka Crisis (1990)

Against Imperialism: International Solidarity and Resistance – Endless Struggle (1990)

Thoughts on the Constitution and Aboriginal Self-Government – Howard Adams (1992)

Challenge to Colonized Culture – Howard Adams (1995)

A Poetics of Anticolonialism, by Robin D.G. Kelley (1999)

Indigenous Nations and Marxism: Notes on an Ambivalent Relationship, by Charles R. Menzies [Gitxaała/Tsimshian Nation] (2010) | PDF

Canada’s Other Red Scare, by Scott Rutherford (2011) | PDF

The Colonialism of the Present: An Interview with Glen Coulthard by Andrew Bard Epstein (2015)

The Re-encounter of Indianismo and Marxism in the Work of Álvaro García Linera, by Irina Alexandra Feldman (2015)

Colonies and Capital: The work of Native American activist Archie Phinney shows how Marxism can help advance indigenous struggle, by Benjamin Balthaser (2016)

Another Wave of Anti-Colonialism: The Origins of Indigenous Internationalism, by Jonathan Crossen (2017)

The Overlooked Significance of the Haya-Mariategui Debate, by Eric Helliener and Antulio Rosales (2017) | PDF

The Specificity of Imperialism, by Salar Mohandesi (2018)

The Radical Anti-imperialist Consciousness of Bolivian Tin Miners in the Early 20th-Century, by Guillermo Delgado-P. (2018)

Liberation from “That Vicious System”: Jim Brady’s 20th Century Métis Cooperatives and Colonial State Responses – Molly Swain (2018)

Communization and Decolonization, by Ediciones Inéditas (2019)

Land Back: The matrilineal descent of modern Indigenous land reclamation – M. Gouldhawke (2020)

Canadian Imperialism & Institutional Racism: Connections between Black & Métis resistance – M. Gouldhawke (2020)

Shainape Shcapwe, Native American Marxist-Humanist and Feminist – Marxist Humanist Initiative (2020)


The Wretched of the Earth, by Frantz Fanon (1961)

The Fourth World, by George Manuel (1974)

Bobbi Lee, Indian Rebel, by Lee Maracle (1975)

Prison of Grass, by Howard Adams (1975)

Following the Red Path, by ᐊᓯᓂ Vern Harper (1979)

The One-and-a-Half Men: The Story of Jim Brady and Malcolm Norris, by Murray Dobbin (1981)

Roots of Oppression, by Steve Talbot (1981)

Chapter 14, “Another Side of Me”, I Am Woman, by Lee Maracle (1988)

Contemporary Challenges: Conversations with Canadian Native Authors, by Hartmut Lutz (1991)

A Tortured People, by Howard Adams (1995)

Howard Adams : Otapawy!: The Life of a Metis Leader in His Own Words and in Those of His Contemporaries, edited by Hartmut Lutz, Murray Hamilton, and Donna Heimbecker (2005)

The Anti-Capitalist Resistance Comic Book, by Gord Hill (2012)

Red Skin, White Masks, by Glen Coulthard (2014)

“Understanding Raven”, Memory Serves, by Lee Maracle (2015)

Chapter 8, “Jack Scott and the left”, My Conversations with Canadians, by Lee Maracle (2017)

RCMP attack the Native Peoples Caravan, Ottawa 1974